1: Superficial. No damage is dealt from this roll (although other damage rolls from the same source may have an effect).
2-3: Structural. The aircraft suffers a hit, with all associated penalties.
4: Weapons. One of the airplane’s weapon systems (randomly determine) is useless because of damage. The firing mechanism of machine guns, cannons, or rockets may be disabled, or the bomb doors are disabled (shut). On a bomber with multiple machine gun emplacements, choose one emplacement, and also do damage to the gunner(as a pilot hit).
5-6: Control Surfaces. The rudder, elevator, or ailerons are damaged or destroyed. All pilot rolls are made at a -4 penalty.
6-7: Engine. The engine (or propeller) is damaged and useless. Each round, the aircraft decelerates by its acceleration (to a maximum of it’s top speed/total engines x functioning engines, so a 4-engine B-17 with one disabled engine is only forced to decelerate to 3/4 its top speed). Of course, if an airplane falls below 1/2 starting top speed, it stalls (see below).
8: Pilot. The pilot is also hit by the weapons. He benefits from the airplane’s armor (+ 4 if the pilot compartment is armored, as with the Il-2 or P-47). In a two-seat airplane, randomly determine which crew member is hit. In a large airplane, 1d4 randomly determined crew members are hit.
9: Fuel Tanks: The airplane’s fuel tank is damaged and is leaking fuel. This fuel catches fire on a 5+ on a d6 (3+ if the plane lacks self-sealing tanks, like most Japanese airplanes). If the plane has suffered a Fuel Tank hit and subsequently (or simultaneously) suffers a second Fuel Tank or Engine hit, it automatically catches fire. See below for rules on burning aircraft.
10+: Wing. The airplane suffers catastrophic damage and is no longer air-worthy. It immediately begins to fall (see stalling, below) with no possibility of recovery. If this is the result of a fire, rather than enemy action, the airplane explodes mid-air, killing the pilot and any crew instantly.
Fire: Burning aircraft are in trouble. Each round an aircraft is on fire it takes an additional 1d4 hits. In a large aircraft (bombers, cargo planes), the crew can use fire extinguishers to fight the fire. Each crew member rolls his agility. For each raise (not for successes on airplanes!), reduce the number of hits by 1. If the fire ever causes no hits, it has been extinguished. If the plane comes with fire suppressing systems, the pilot (or co-pilot) may roll Knowledge (Aircraft Systems) to use these. Each success or raise (not just raise) reduces the damage by one, as with fire extinguishers.
Stall: If a plane ever moves by less than 1/2 its top speed, it begins to stall (go out of control). Similarly, if a pilot fails a pilot roll caused by damage, the airplane stalls. The airplane begins to descend by it’s current speed, and accelerates downward until it reaches its (starting) top speed. This is terminal velocity.
Each round, the pilot may attempt to regain control of his airplane. On a successful pilot check, the airplane is no longer stalled, and has a speed of 1/2 its top speed (if an airplane can’t fly at 1/2 its top speed because of engine damage, it can’t recover). Otherwise, the pilot, crew, and passengers may try to bail out. To successfully bail out, make an agility roll, subtracting the airplane’s damage. On a success, the character safely bails out. See the parachuting rules. On a failure, the character fails to bail out—the canopy is stuck, or the plane is moving too violently to reach an exit. On a 0 or less, the character does bail out—but they are struck by the airplane, taking 3d8 damage. Even if they survive this damage, their parachute hasn’t opened, and they must make an agility check at -2 to open it (one attempt if they bailed out at low altitude, two from high).